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I completed the TU/e Industrial Design bachelor in August 2020. My interest was in designing new automotive user experiences through shape changing interfaces made from sustainable materials. In this background I developed basic skills in CAD modelling, electronics, prototyping sketching, automotive design and interaction design. 

In the first year of the master, I continued to focus on automotive design in my M1.1 project. At the same time, in the course interactive materiality, I explored aesthetic interactions through interactive shape changing prototypes where the materials used in the creation of the interface help shape the interaction experience

Further exploring this in my M1.2, I looked at sustainable materials complementing interaction. To do so, I familiarized myself with sustainability theories such as Cradle to Cradle [5] and the Circular Economy [2]. I worked for the first time with a biomaterial in a Material Driven Design Approach [3] exploring the tactile and visual aesthetics of mycelium. This introduction to biomaterials inspired me to learn more about bio-design and sustainability.

At the University of Utrecht, I learned how to take a biologist perspective on nature in design. Two courses taught me to bridge biology and design and look at biomaterials and sustainability from an alternative perspective: Everything in the world is connected and the things we design are always part of nature. 

Coming back to TU/e, and after side-tracking into a non-biomaterial project, I returned to Material Driven Design [3] with biomaterials. Recognizing their potential, I wanted to explore how combinations of biomaterials and finite materials fit within a circular economy [2]. Here biomaterials and circular design became my main priority and I stepped away from automotive design. With MySpeaker, in my M2.1 project, I developed my view on a bio-inclusive circular economy as described in my vision and explored the implication of combining non-organic and biological materials in a design. I did this following the first three steps of a Material Driven Design approach with a mycelium-composite. Together with my M1.2 I went through this approach two times. One focused on aesthetics and interactions (M1.2) the other on technology and circularity (M2.1). For my FMP I proposed to continue this approach, following step four, in the design of a circular mycelium-composite consumer electronic.     

relevant learning activities

dcm160 - interactive materiality

main: CA & TR

In this course me and two others created a shape changing interface inspired by docile and dominant behaviour by exploring interactivity of materials.

The focus in this course was on shaping interactions with a material (CA) instead of adding a material to the interaction. I learned about the importance of how visual haptics [4] and tactile aesthetics of a material (CA) can influence users their experience (US). 

I focused on building and coding, learning how to make a high-quality experience prototype (CA & TR). I learned that the interaction with a shape changing interface leans on the temporal form and computational form of an interface (i.e., when in a certain state or moving in between) and how it responds to input (MDC) [1]. Working on the realization I learned how to code for this behaviour (MDC & TR). 

m2.1 - MySpeaker 

main: CA, TR & US

In my M2.1 project, following the first three steps of a Material Driven Design Approach [3], I explored combining non-organic and biological materials. Following this, I designed a mycelium speaker as a tool for speculation and exploring the role of biomaterials in the circular economy. 

In this project I learned how to reflect on and document the process of experimenting with a biomaterial (TR & MDC). Doing this I learned about understanding material properties of (bio)materials (TR) while growing together electronic components with mycelium. Combining these materials taught me how to manipulate my samples to create new aesthetics with lights (CA & TR). I also explored a first set of modular mycelium samples. Finally, I expressed my personal vision on the circular economy by theorizing about a bio-inclusive circular economy (US & BE). Using MySpeaker as a tool for discussion (US) I explored this vision with other designers and engineers. 

course UU - bio-inspired innovation and value creation

main: US, MDC & BE

In this course I learned about the position of design in nature and biology (US). Everything has a place in the loops of nature during and after use. I further learned hard skills such as conducting LCAs (MDC & BE), Ecological Quickscans (MDC) and circular BMCs (BE).  

m1.2 - Is that Fungus? 

main: CA, TR, US & MDC

In my M1.2 project I researched the visual and tactile interaction experiences one has with mycelium force feedback dials. I researched user experience and usability of these dials.

In this research project I familiarized myself with the topics of Cradle to Cradle [5] and Circular Design [2] (US & BE). I identified mycelium as a biomaterial that fits within these sustainability theories and through the first three steps of the Material Driven Design Approach [3], I learned how to research their visual [4] and tactile aesthetics during interactions (CA & US).

In this project, I also looked at how an Anticipated User Experience [6] matches the actual User Experience (US). For this I learned how to design with a biomaterial (CA & TR) and how to create interactive prototypes for data collection (TR & MDC). I learned how to collect both quantitative and qualitative data on the experiences users had with the dials (MDC). 

m1.1 - project TrustMI

main: CA, TR & US

In Project TrustMI, me and three group members, made a UI on autonomous car behaviour aimed to increase the trust of the passenger in the autonomous car.

In this project I focused on developing my own hard skills. I learned how to surface model (TR) while modelling multiple autonomous cars used to provide context to the project (CA & US). I also focused on setting up user tests (US) and doing research on trust literature (US). This project showed me the importance of scoping your project with related works and building context for your designs. 

course UU - integrative bio-inspired design 

main: CA & TR

In this course, me and 3 bio-inspired innovation students redesigned an area within the Amersfoort military base to be more bio-inclusive.

I learned how to translate biological models into design (TR) and how to make use of nature as inspiration source (CA).

6ema62 - device integrated responsive materials 

6ema62 - device integrated responsive materials 

main: TR

In this course I collaborated with other engineering students on developing a chemical activated soft robot. 

In this course I learned about collaborating multi-disciplinary in design, working together with chemical- and mechanical engineering students. I also learned how to CAD-design moulds for pouring silicone (TR).


  1. Anna Vallgårda. 2014. Giving form to computation things: developing a practice of interaction design. Personal and ubiquitous computing, 18(3), 577 – 592. DOI: 

  2. Ellen MacArthur Foundation. n.d. What is a circular economy?. Retrieved February 3, 2024 from

  3. Elvin Karana, Bahareh Barati, Valentina Rognoli and Anouk Zeeuw van de Laan. 2015. Material Driven Design (MDD): A method to design for material experiences. International Journal of Design, 9(2), 35-54.

  4. Laura U. Marks. 2004. Haptic visuality: Touching with the eyes. Framework: the finnish art review, 2, 79-82

  5. Michael Braungart and William McDonough. 2002.Cradle to Cradle: Remaking the Way We Make Things. (1st. ed.) North Point Press, New York, NY.

  6. Virpi Roto, Effie Law, Arnold Vermeeren and Jettie Hoonhout. 2011. User Experience White Paper. Bringing clarity to the concept of user experience. Retrieved from

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